Jul 29, 2011

History of Unix & Linux

1957Bell Labs found they needed an operating system for their computer
center that at the time was running various batch jobs.
The BESYS operating system was created at Bell Labs to deal
with these needs.
1965Bell Labs was adopting third generation computer equipment and
decided to join forces with General Electric and MIT to
create Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service).
1969By April 1969, AT&T made a decision to withdraw Multics and go
with GECOS. When Multics was withdrawn Ken Thompson and
Dennis Ritchie needed to rewrite an operating system in order
to play space travel on another smaller machine (a DEC PDP-7
[Programmed Data Processor 4K memory for user programs).
The result was a system that a punning colleague called UNICS
 (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service)--an 'emasculated
1969Summer 1969 Unix was developed.
1969Linus Torvalds is born.
1971First edition of Unix released 11/03/1971. The first edition of the
"Unix PROGRAMMER'S MANUAL [by] K. Thompson [and]
D. M. Ritchie." It includes over 60 commands like: b
(compile B program); boot (reboot system); cat (concatenate files);
 chdir (change working directory); chmod (change access mode);
 chown (change owner); cp (copy file); ls (list directory contents);
 mv (move or rename file); roff (run off text); wc (get word count); who(who is one the system). The main thing missing was pipes.
1972Second edition of Unix released December 06, 1972.
1972Ritchie rewrote B and called the new language C.
1973Unix had been installed on 16 sites (all within AT&T/Western
 Electric); it was publically unveiled at a conference in October.
1973Third edition of Unix released February 1973
1973Forth edition of Unix released November 1973
1974Fifth edition of Unix released June 1974
1974Thompson went to UC Berkeley to teach for a year,
Bill Joy arrived as a new graduate student. Frustrated
 with ed, Joy developed a more featured editor em.
1975Sixth edition of Unix released May 1975
1975Bourne shell is introduced begins being added onto.
19771BSD released late 1977
19782BSD released mid 1978
1979Seventh edition of Unix released January 1979
19793BSD released late 1979
1979SCO founded by Doug and Larry Michels as Unix porting and
 consulting company.
19804.0BSD released October 1980
1982SGI introduces IRIX.
1983SCO delivers its first packaged Unix system called SCO XENIX
 System V for Intel 8086 and 8088 processor-based PCs.
1983The GNU operating system is first announced by Richard Stallman
September 27, 1983.
1984Ultrix 1.0 was released.
1985Eighth edition of Unix released February 1985
1985The GNU manifesto is published in the March 1985 issue of
 Dr. Dobb's Journal. The GNU project starts a year and a half later.
1986HP-UX 1.0 released.
1986Ninth edition of Unix released September 1986
1987Sun and AT&T lay the groundwork for business computing in the next
decade with an alliance to develop Unix System V Release 4.
1988HP-UX 2.0 released.
1988HP-UX 3.0 released.
1989SCO ships SCO Unix System V/386, the first volume commercial
product licensed by AT&T to use the Unix System trademark.
1989HP-UX 7.0 released.
1989Tenth edition of Unix released October 1989
1990AIX short for Advanced Interactive eXecutive was first entered
 into the market by IBM February 1990.
1991Sun unveils Solaris 2 operating environment, specially tuned for
 symetric multiprocessing.
1991Linux is introduced by Linus Torvalds, a student in Finland.
1991HP-UX 8.0 released.
1991BSD/386 ALPHA First code released to people outside BSDI 12/xx/1991
1992HP-UX 9.0 released.
1993NetBSD 0.8 released 04/20/1993
1993FreeBSD 1.0 released December of 1993
1994Red Hat Linux is introduced.
1994Caldera, Inc was founded in 1994 by Ransom Love and Bryan Sparks.
1994NetBSD 1.0 released 10/26/1994
1995FreeBSD 2.0 released 01/xx/1995
1995SCO acquires Unix Systems source technology business from
 Novell Corporation (which had acquired it from AT&T's Unix System
Laboratories). SCO also acquires UnixWare 2 operating system from
1995HP-UX 10.0 released.
19954.4 BSD Lite Release 2 the true final distribution from the
CSRG 06/xx/1995
1996KDE is started to be developed by Matthias Ettrich
1997HP-UX 11.0 released.
1997Caldera ships OpenLinux Standard 1.1 May 5, 1997, the second
 offering in Caldera's OpenLinux product line
1998IRIX 6.5 the fifth generation of SGI Unix is released July 6, 1998.
1998SCO delivers UnixWare 7 operating system.
1998Sun Solaris 7 operating system released.
1998FreeBSD 3.0 released 10/16/1998
2000FreeBSD 4.0 released 03/13/2000
2000Caldera Systems Inc. announces that Caldera Systems has entered
 into agreement to acquire the SCO Server Software Division and
the Professional Services Division.
2001Linus Torvalds releases version 2.4 of the Linux Kernel source code on
January 4th.
2001Microsoft files a trademark suit against Lindows.com in December.
2004Lindows changes it's name to Linspire April 14, 2004.
2004The first release of Ubuntu is released October 20, 2004.


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