Nov 25, 2009

History of Computer Networks


Before the advent of computer networks that were based upon some type of[telecommunication]is system, communication between calculation machines and history of computer hardware early computers was performed by human users by carrying instructions between them. Many of the social behavior seen in today's Internet was demonstrably present in nineteenth-century and arguably in even earlier networks using visual signals.The Victorian Internet
In September 1940 George Stibitz used a teletype machine to send instructions for a problem set from his Model at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and received results back by the same means. Linking output systems like teletypes to computers was an interest at the Advanced Research Projects Agency(ARPA) when, in 1962, J.C.R. Licklider was hired and developed a working group he called the "Intergalactic Network", a precursor to the ARPANet.
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth developed the (Dartmouth Time Sharing System)for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at (MIT), a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer DEC's to route and manage telephone connections.
Throughout the 1960s Leonard Kleinrock,Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently conceptualized and developed network systems which used datagrams or Packet (information technology)that could be used in a network between computer systems.
1965 Thomas Merrill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network (WAN).
The first widely used PSTN switch that used true computer control was the Western Electric introduced in 1965.
In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANet network using 50 kbit/s circuits. Commercial services using X.25 were deployed in 1972, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks.
Computer networks, and the technologies needed to connect and communicate through and between them, continue to drive computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. This expansion is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of users of networks from the researcher to the home user.
Today, computer networks are the core of modern communication. All modern aspects of the Public Switched Telephone Network(PSTN) are computer-controlled, and telephony increasingly runs over the Internet Protocol, although not necessarily the public Internet. The scope of communication has increased significantly in the past decade and this boom in communications would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network.

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